Patients may be referred to a urologist if their physician suspects they may need treatment for a condition relating to bladder, urethra, ureters, kidneys, and adrenal glands.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These often arise when bacteria migrate from the digestive tract to the urethra. Symptoms include abnormal urination, pain, incontinence, nausea, vomiting, fevers, and chills. It mostly affects women.
Incontinence: A malfunction in the urinary system can lead to involuntary loss of bladder control. In women, this may result from a weakening of the pelvic floor muscles during pregnancy.
Kidney disease: Damage to the kidneys can lead to swelling in the hands and ankles, high blood pressure, and other symptoms. If the kidneys no longer work effectively, this is kidney failure. Ultimately, it can be fatal.
Renal transplantation: A person may require kidney transplants following kidney failure.
Bladder prolapse: When the tissues and muscles of the pelvic floor are no longer able to support the organs in the pelvis, the organs can drop from their usual position.